According to French law, to fall under the parody exception, the second work must evoke the pre-existing work and present significant differences from it so there is no possible confusion with the parodied work, as well as constitute a manifestation of humour and mockery. If the second work does not satisfy these conditions, and does…

It is a common practice to make copies of deteriorating or far away cultural heritage. As of 2022, it is not even a new idea to use digital methods to copy heritage, considering that the mass digitisation of cultural heritage, especially books, started more than two decades ago. But we should also recognise the current…

This contribution is based on a paper published in 44 European Intellectual Property Law Review 595 (2022)   Photographs are included in Article 2(1) of the Berne Convention as copyrightable artistic works. All Berne Union Member States must thus provide copyright protection to photographic works. As is known, originality has always been the essential requirement…

Give me twenty-six soldiers of lead and I will conquer the world.   This quote is often attributed to Johannes Gutenberg, Benjamin Franklin, Karl Marx, or all of the above. Even if we cannot identify the exact author of these words, we can recognise that these three individuals all understood the power of the twenty-six…

Repair and maintenance information is often crucial for the repair of today’s increasingly complex and computerised products and devices. Copyright’s subsistence in repair manuals and information can run contrary to the public interest in access and dissemination of this information, leading to the premature product obsolescence and abandonment. The InfoSoc Directive’s non-mandatory exception for the…

The increasing costs of publication under the Gold Open Access model and “Big Deals”   The European Federation of Academies of Sciences and Humanities (ALLEA) has for many years supported the move away from proprietary models of scientific publishing towards Open Access (OA).[1] OA publication of publicly funded scientific research bears the triple promise of…

In August 2022, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation published a study on EU copyright and related rights and access to and reuse of scientific publications, including open access. The study analyses the relationship between EU copyright law and access to and reuse of scientific publications, including open access, as well as potential…

Part 1 of this post outlined augmented reality (AR) technology, its applications in the cultural heritage sector and its potential copyright implications. This part discusses the relevant copyright exceptions and limitations.   Exceptions enabling AR for fostering education and participation in cultural life Currently, EU law does not contain any broad clause enabling exploitations related…

Augmented Reality (AR) is a fast-evolving technology enabling the overlap of digital images with those from the real world. It makes use of several technological developments and in particular computing devices with wireless connectivity that let the user connect to the Internet and other devices in different places. Part 1 of this post outlines the…

In 2019, the EU’s Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive (CDSMD) was adopted. This included the highly controversial Articles 15 and 17 on, respectively, the new press publishers’ right (PPR) and the new copyright liability scheme for OCSSPs (“online content-sharing services providers”). In a report published in September 2022, I undertook research into the…